Uncovering China’s agenda for Ping-Pong

Table Tennis is not for the faint-hearted, it is a sport of endurance, stamina and utter focus.

Sports presents itself in all forms and sizes, as an individual of the Western World I was not always aware of the extent of ping-pong. In Australia, I associate ping-pong with the legendary game of Beer Pong and a casual muck around with friends. In China, Table Tennis is the countries biggest sport. China is ranked number 1 in the world and holds the three top seats in the Men’s and Women’s leagues. Of China’s population, it is estimated that there are around 10 million citizens who regularly play the game. During the 2008 Bejing Olympic Games, a solid 300 million people of China tuned in to watch the mega show-down between China’s Table Tennis athletes Ma Lin vs. Wang Hao.

Autoethnography is an approach to research and writing that seeks to describe and systematically analyse (graphy) personal experience (auto) in order to understand cultural experience (ethno). As part of autoethnography, researchers are challenged to participate in their own self-evaluation, this stems from the concept of epiphanies. Epiphanies are remembered moments percieved to have significantly impacted the trajectory of a person’s life. Epiphanies require a level of self-awareness, they reveal the ways and ‘whys’ a person reacts to particular circumstances or situations.

My first step of investigation for my digital artifact was to sit down and watch a clip of the best rallies in table tennis history. My mind was blown by the skill and endurance these athletes have. My next aim was to sit and attempt to watch a full game to get the feel. My past is grounded in tennis, as a former Australian athlete I thought to myself, it really is in essence tennis but on a way smaller level. So I sat down and had a go, after 30 minutes past it was safe to say I was bored. Some people say its because Youtube provided me with an old and ordinary game, but I also think it’s because I had no clue what was going on…..

I researched the rules and training behind the sport and spread my wings to watch a variety of different games at various levels and tutorials. What I found interesting was that undoubtedly each tournament was filled with spectators; views on YouTube videos were consistently more than 400,000+. Interestingly an epiphany popped into my mind, “what makes sport so culturally valuable in society?” “Why do certain countries choose to invest in particular sports?” To narrow down my scope, I researched the history behind the emergence of table tennis in China, why it is a cultural value and to further my own understanding of the game in order to try and value it the same as the Chinese people do.

To validate my epiphanies against Ellis theory of autoethnography – Ethnography is, the study of a culture’s relational practices, common values and beliefs and shared experiences for the purpose of helping insiders and outsiders better understand culture.

As previously stated in my other blog post, China was first introduced to Table Tennis by its former leader Mao Zedong. The sport swiftly became a cultural value of the country, the sport was ‘bizarrely‘ popular amongst the Communist Party of China’s military force during the 1930s. Not long after do we see China using Ping-Pong as a source of diplomacy, this is through the games introduction to the Olympic Games and also communication with other countries.

I found that a brief look into the its history in China and the values that extend past the social norm of sport generate yet another element for my digital artefact. In order to fulfil the criteria of autoethnography, my aim will be to reveal the history of ping-pong in China and explore its globalisation and diplomacy. It will not only allow me to understand the value the country holds for the sport, but also allow me to uncover the hidden agenda government’s hold for sport.


A sport for every nation.

The world of sport is much larger than what society understand. Sport provides not only a source of health and fitness, rather sport has created unity in communities, it has broadened inter-cultural communication and brought into effect the realities of globalisation. Sport can be named as a ‘peacetime’ event, occasions such as the Olympic Games have bought peace amongst countries in the modern day. Government’s are utilising sport as a platform for global attention and political activity.

I have always had a profound interest in sports, as a former athlete and as a fan and spectator. I have been particularly interested in what sports are largely followed in selected countries, for example, in Australia, our biggest and most followed sports are NRL, AFL and Cricket. Across each sports, fans, coverage and the match itself differs.

For the upcoming research project, I endeavour to take a focus on China’s value of sport with a particular focus on Table Tennis, also known as Ping Pong.


To get the ball rolling, I turned to trust Google to help me understand a little more about the sport. Little did I know that my views of Ping Pong have been completely wrong.

The game of table tennis actually began during the 1880s in England, as a lawn tennis player adapted their game to play indoors during the winter. It has had its humble beginnings grounded as a ‘parlour game‘, for anyone who had the access to a table, paddle and a ball. The name ‘Ping-Pong’ followed shortly after, it was coined by the English firm J. Jaques and Son at the end of the 1800s, and later trademarked in the US by Parker Brothers, the board game company. The game expanded and caught wind during 1901, the earliest dates of tournaments show that there were more than 300 participants. In 1922 the first Ping-Pong Association was formed and renamed The Table Tennis Association.

Mind-blown? Me too.

But when was ping-pong introduce into China?

China has been infatuated with table tennis since the 1950s, it was during this time Chairman Mao declared it as the national sport. The communist leader thought it was a logical decision, a sport that can be played at a cheap expense and was a sport that was not as popular in the West. Today, China holds the top three ranking in the Men and Women’s League as well as the top spot in the world!

Fun Facts:

  • China is ruthless in their national team selection
  • Chinese players train for a minimum of 7 hours a day
  • Players work with specialised practice partners, even sometimes two against one
  • Chinese teams have the most extensive and strategic analysis about competitors and are pioneers for new techniques

For this digital artefact, I want to immerse myself in the culture of Ping-Pong. I endeavour to watch, research and write about the ins and outs of the sport.

I am a self-proclaimed sports fanatic (sports journalist is the ultimate goal), but I have very limited knowledge to play with. With the help of autoethnography, my digital artefact will be a reflection of my understandings, conclusions, opinions and epiphanies concerning ping-pong and its stance throughout the Chinese Culture.

I have chosen to present my artefact in written form, a mixture of reviews, analysis, cultural understandings and a sports report. I believe this is an effective way to convey my findings, as well as allow my brain explosion to flow and explore a range of different avenues ping-pong influences and flows amongst.

First stop! Watching re-runs of the Table Tennis games during the 2018 Asian Games.

Let the games begin!

Is It Really Equality?

On the surface, Nike’s Equality campaign presents all the elements to successfully adhere to a social justice intervention. Its motto, activists and ambitions urge consumers to break the barrier and welcome equality of race, gender, religion, so on. Although, there has been speculation surrounding Nike’s choice of advertising and a question of what goes on behind the scenes at Headquarters. Through reflection and feedback received from peers, it has become evident that while Nike have created and advocated for change and equality, it seems that these motives have not always been successfully executed.


As previously stated, ‘Equality’ is an initiative that serves as an equal opportunity for all. Although, since the campaign has hit the headlines it seems that their actions are far from closing the barrier.

Firstly, an article written by OKTC journalist Clay Travis is quite striking, “Nike is for equality: unless you make it shoes”. Travis brings to light the imbalance between common society and LeBron James. For obvious reasons, LeBron is one of the world’s greatest athletes and a KOL for the campaign. LeBron is one of the leading activists for Equality, Nike utilises a renowned athlete as such to help circulate awareness and bring coverage to the intervention.

LeBron has evolved as not only an athlete but also as a brand. From apparel to shoes, Travis explains that while the collaboration between Equality Ambassador James and Nike there are ethical and contradictory issues.

Nike-Air-Jordan-1-OG-High-Chicago.pngThe purpose of the campaign is expressing and providing the opportunity for equality; however, this is contradicted through production labour. Reports show for a pair of Air Jordan’s, Nike is set to pay a total of US $16.25 (roughly) – to break it down: $10.75 for materials, $2.43 for labour, overhead is $2.10 and the factory profit. In Australia, to purchase a pair of LeBron James shoes, you are estimated to spend $210+ on a pair alone. Comparing and contrasting the manufacturing costs to retail, it is evident there is a clear inequality here.

Through Nike’s Equality AD, taglines such as “opportunity should not discriminate” and “we can be equals everywhere” are repeated. The question stands, how is Nike able to continue advocating for Equality when the productions of their products are an example of inequality. It is interesting to reflect on Nike’s prior history; an issue they were previously entangled with was their ‘sweatshop’ image in the shoe industry.

img_6814-e1501517865348.jpgIn July of 2017, students and activists around the world came together to participate in a day of protest against Nike, organised by the United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS). Allegations against Nike have begun to rise once again as claims have emerged that workers at the Nike contract Factory in Hansae and Vietnam have suffered wage theft and verbal abuse. This follows long laboured hours in temperatures that were estimated to be over the legal limit of 90 degrees. As a result of this, it is evident that many American Universities have cut ties with the company to push for equal opportunity and fairer working conditions.

Nike confirmed that it would reduce the volume of orders to Hansae, and worked towards improving the working conditions at the factory alongside the Fair Labor Association.

Interestingly, it is evident that while a sporting conglomerate such as Nike push for equality throughout society, we can see that the initiative has not made a fair impression on the people. Nike must push to rectify these issues in order to create a neutral and clear view of its campaign and future objectives.


Cyber Culture & Sport

Technology as a whole has progressively evolved. It has changed the way we do, think, operate and communicate. Modern technology has made it “possible for the discovery of many functional and utility devices such as wearable technology. With the introduction of these technologies, it has made our daily lives easier, faster and more efficient.

However, there is more than meets the eye when examining the effects and influence technology has on society. Have you ever wondered and questions how technology fits so well with humans, how this integration enhances the extension and capabilities of human existence?

Cybernetics is one of your answers and Norbert Wiener is your man.  Cybernetics takes as a domain for the design or discovery and application of principles of regulation and communications. Cybernetics is defined as “the science of communication and automatic control systems in both machines and living things”. Cybernetics is an important concept when understanding the relationship between man and machine; it connects control with communication, and understanding the connection between the goal, the information and the outcome. Wieners theory originated from the Greek word Kubernetes, which directly translates to ‘steersmanship’, which funnily enough helps you to understand that cybernetics is essentially the study of systems.

The 21stcentury has now become a cyber world and Wiener has been the crux of inspiration for following his footsteps. Geeta Dayaldraws on Brian Eno’s understanding of cybernetics in the 1975 classic, stating that cybernetics is defining the creative process “cybernetic systems were used to model practically every phenomenon, with varying degrees of success”. Some suggest that Wiener resembles a prophet of an uncertain future, writing about the human perils faced by handing over power to machines.

Essentially with the influence of technology and the cyber realm, we can be seen as an ongoing scientific experiment, understanding how man/animal and machine work coherently on a daily basis.

But here’s an easier way to understand cybernetics!

Essentially, cybernetics reaches us on any end of the universe. It is a concept that only will continue to evolve as technology progresses.

It is interesting to examine exactly what areas cybernetics can change!

Sport is an interesting example, it is one industry that over the years has progressively changed and evolved as a result of the incorporation of technology and cybernetics. Since the 60s we can see the sporting industry rise, “it has carved out for itself a niche with its roots so deep that I cannot fathom the sports industry showing any sign of decline any time soon – or later”. The sports industry can be said to be home to one of the largest masses of fans the world has ever seen, Owner of the NBA’s Sacramento Kings says, “fans will paint their face purple, fans will evangelize… every other CEO in every business is dying to be in our position – they’re dying to have fans”.

The introduction of technology into the world of sports has created opportunities, it has given fans a larger playing field for interaction with athletes, and it has helped enhance athletes, technology has changed the way referees score and the way athletes train and lastly it has helped differ those who are pushing to exceed in illegal ways.

We have seen the incorporation of video and touch technology, player tracking devices have optimised individual statistics and feedback, EXO skeletons and bionic arms have given athletes another opportunity and made them ‘able’ and sports clothing has added another dimension to athletic ability. Cybernetics gives us these results, in other words, the specific system’s actions cause a change in the environment where it is present, with the changes reflected back to the system as feedback. As the changes are fed back to the system, it changes according to its programming.

The following portfolio will explore the influence and involvement of cybernetics and technology in sport. It will investigate a range of areas in the sporting industry and ultimately make an evaluation on the adjustments and so-called ‘improvements’ technology has made in the industry. Its aim is to broaden the understanding of how areas such as social media and fantasy sports enable fans and extend the sporting community and how the use of wearable technology is revolutionising the way we operate and improve performance.

Social Media

Social media is changing the way athletes, clubs and fans are interacting with each other. No longer are fans queuing to have the rare encounter with their idol, with the introduction of the Internet and social media, fan interaction is easier than ever! Because of the webosphere we are not only just watching, fans can get instant news, insights, commentary straight from the source.

Singaporean commentator Walter Lim describes sports and social media as a match made in heaven, he says “the instantaneous, intimate and interactive nature of social and mobile technologies make them perfect platforms to fuel our sporting desires”.

The incorporation of social media into sport is showing our deep descent into a future culture, now more than ever has social media and the internet given the sporting industry a Segway to maximise their reach to fans.

A prime example of this is renowned English Premier League Club, Manchester United. Man United are known for ‘flexing’ their ‘social media muscles’, social media has become one of their key tools in the marketing department. Manchester United are one of the most followed football clubs in the Premier League, fans of the red devils are said to make up 30% of all premier league followers. Meanwhile, the club has been accounted for more than 40% of fan engagement in 2017.

Social media is being used as a tool for marketing, fan impression and also merchandising. 2016 was a big year for signings at Manchester United; one, in particular, was the five-year deal of Paul Pogba. Rather than addressing the media the traditional way in a press conference, Man United took to social media to break the news to the world.

On Tuesday the 9thof August at 12.35am the news broke loose at emerged the hashtag #POGBACK that signified his reunion with the club that sold him in 2012. Red Devils were sent into a frenzy over the new signing, but this was not the only way the news broke the Internet.

Social media can maximise reach to their followers, Pobga, Adidas and Manchester United are a match made in heaven. The club and the brand went hand in hand to unveil a music video performed by artist Stormzy.

The video quickly went viral and within the first week, it reached more than 3million views. The video represented a fusion of music, lifestyle, rap and sport – which some can is the perfect reflection of Paul Pogba. But this is only one example; currently, Paul Pobga on Instagram alone has 22.8 million followers, Manchester United can offer any sponsorship this much reach each time the athlete posts a picture wearing their product.

Pobga signed to the club for £89 million, however, shortly after Man United signed renowned Swedish player Zlatan Ibrahimovic on a free transfer. It was rumoured that Zlatan’s jersey sales alone had paid for Pogba’s transfer fee.

These are only some examples to exhibit how much of an impact social media is having on the sporting industry. Sporting clubs now are thinking beyond the realm of social media and are exploring digital innovations; apps like the Manchester United application or the NBA app on smartphones are changing the game. Brands and clubs are branching out to maximise fan engagement in the next generation.

Sport is progressing further towards cyberculture. How we know, communicate and engage has all turned to digital technology. As previously stated the sporting industry has invested in social media in order to engage fans and attract the newer generations. However, the relationship between social media, fans and athletes proves not to always be as efficient and positive.

With heightened fan engagement and surveillance, social media creates an easy opportunity for athletes to go viral as a result of their actions or words. As a result of this athletes are heavily surveilled by governing bodies to avoid public humiliation and outrage. An example of this is Paul Pogba, in March of this year he released a photo of his latest haircut, as some described it resembling a ‘peacock’. Fans expressed outrage by Pogba’s ‘antics’ on social media, urging the football star to clean up his act.

There are further countless amounts of ‘accidental’ posts by athletes on Twitter:



Furthermore, while social media has now become a key tool in marketing for athletes, associations and brands we can see social media as an ever-evolving platform for fans and the next upcoming generation. In order to maintain its success and efficiency, player profiles must continue to be patrolled to avoid miscommunication, embarrassment and potential harm.

With all the success and branding from social media, will athletes and their clubs take an extra step for precaution and surveillance?

Insider Technology

Technology is defying human abilities, it is becoming more precise, it is reaching areas and heights that are unattainable for humans and are effortlessly picking up on human error. The future and culture of sport are becoming technologically advanced and digitised. Now more than ever have we seen the heightened inclusion of digital technology in sporting arenas and off field.

Technologies such as the video-referee, the hawk-eye, playback and many more have rapidly increased decision making, precision and ‘fairness’ throughout sport. The use of such technologies has been greatly underestimated and their use has been highly disputed. The involvement of said technologies will continue to provoke a debate amongst professionals in the industry and researchers. However, as a result of an evolving ‘digitised’ society, it does not seem that the digital influence will disappear anytime soon. So, let us explore some of the many technologies used throughout sport.

Athletes over the years have become progressively stronger, faster and smarter. The momentum and speed of games have greatly increased as a result of this, and often scores have been decided based on a difference of a millimetre. With the introduction of technology, many would argue that the degree of difference and efficiency has increased with the reliance on officiating technologies. One, in particular, is the Hawk-Eye.

Hawk-eye technology has been a game changer, mostly seen in sports such as tennis, cricket, rugby and volleyball.

The hawk-eye is a leading sports innovation technology, which tracks the trajectory of an object or individual in the field of play. It gives a virtual understanding of the distance and angle of where the ball travels, it allows for the virtual path of the ball once the play has been recorded and generated which gives the officials and audience a guided bath of the ball.


The technology is made up of six high-speed vision-processing cameras, accompanied with two broadcast cameras. Once the field of play is completed, each camera records and combines to form a virtual 3D positioning of the ball. This 3D vision shows the delivery of the ball, the bounce and impact, which measure the direction, speed, swing, and dip of the delivery from players.

The precision and accuracy the hawk-eye delivers, has been a game changer in multiple instances. It has awarded players the right to challenge the umpire/referee and provided an alternative means of decision-making. Hawk-eye technology is said to be one of the main forms of sporting technology that has produced accurate decisions.

However, like many forms of technology, we cannot always rely on its ability to perform at all times. The hawk-eye is known for giving a marginal error in tennis of 3.6mm while also being affected by bugs.

In 2016, cricket’s DRS system was under fire following a failure in the hawk-eye technology during Australia’s win over South Africa.

Video footage of the controversial moments revealed a huge failure from the hawk-eye ball-tracking path-predictor.

South African star AB de Villiers was clean bowled by Aussie quick Josh Hazlewood during the Aussies’ 36-run win in St Kitts — but the Hawk-Eye ball-tracker predicted a very different result.”

As a result of this incident, cricket fans doubted the ongoing use of this technology, not shying away from the fact the technology could have only been accurate within 5mm when used.

In response to this backlash, researcher Dr Hawkins said: “the technology has only made four inaccurate rulings since an upgraded version of the technology was introduced eight years ago”. While Hawkins has provided proof of the hawk-eyes accuracy, the debate still prevails. Will there ever come a time where technology will be deemed as ‘100% stable’? Only time and mechanics will tell….

On a different level of sport, goal-line technology has been another game changer in the sporting world.

Goal-line technology (GLT) was approved for use in soccer in 2012 by The International Football Association Board (IFAB). This technology no longer places a sole reliance on the referee to judge a goal, rather the technology now judges and assess if the ball has or has not crossed the line.

To explain GLT in a nutshell, below is a video created by FIFA:

If you are a football fan, you would agree that to correctly judge a goal based on these is near impossible without the inclusion of GLT.

GLT much like the hawk-eye technology has been said to have saved and changed the game in many instances. Analysing results from some of the most important games in the football world, there have been many affected by goals that were wrongly awarded and ruled out.

839723940.jpgSimilar to hawk-eye technology, there has been room for unwanted error. An article from Bein Sports shows the first failure of GLT, in October 2017. During a game between Rennes and Caen in Ligue, GTL failed and now has become a step in football history.


Check it out here: http://www.beinsports.com/my/football/video/the-first-failure-of-the-goal-line-technology/667458

It is clear; the involvement of technology in sports has called for drastic changes in refereeing. However, this technology is not only inclusive on the field. Rather its involvement off the field is levelling the playing field.

Drug testing.

depiction-of-athletes-competing-at-the-ancient-olympic-games.jpgDoping in sport has been seen as a trend throughout sporting history, its earliest findings have been dated back to 776 BC. Where history shows the Ancient Greeks were using performance-enhancing drugs during the original Olympic games.

Since these times, drug use in the sporting industry began to rapidly grow, and as a result of the inclined deaths that were occurring the International Olympic Committee was urged to set up a Medical Commission in 1967 which banned the use of drugs and performance enhancement. Small-scale testing began during the 1968 Mexico Olympics, followed by full-scale testing which took place at the next Olympic Games held in Munich of 1972. One of the biggest drug scandals in the sporting industry can be recognised when examining the Russian Olympics, a conspiracy that emerged during the 2014 Social Olympics.

Since these events, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has enforced stricter rules and regulations that have been implemented. During 2016 WADA granted $224,437 to the University of South Australia and the Australian Research Council Centre for Excellence in Bio-Nano Science to change the way testing is done.

This is how doping testing is conducted:

However, for years the processes of drug testing across Olympic Games has proven to be inaccurate and unreliable. With the coming of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games, we saw such technology fail.

While the enforcement of WADA and the guiding technologies have been effective. Further investigations continue to roll out surrounding the issue of doping in the sporting industry.

The analysis of the hawk-eye, goal-line technology and anti-doping technology shows how the sporting industry is becoming digitised as we progress into a future culture. While such technologies are greatly benefitting the accuracy, fairness and efficiency, we are still seeing the failures and inaccuracy that is occurring. The question still continues on, ‘will technology on and off the sporting field better the sport, or will we forever stand in a grey area between effectiveness and failure?’

Wearable Technology

Cybernetics has reformed the relationship between man and machine. It has allowed us outperform human ability and has given the push to become more efficient and sustainable. The simplest of things like the new Nike Flyknit running shoe, or the personal tracking device in the Apple Watch are some examples showing how digital technology has changed our existence.

On the theme of sports and technology, cybernetics has revolutionised wearable technology in the sporting industry. Sporting technologies are man-made means (methods), developed to reach human interests or goals in or relating to a particular sport. Technology in sports is a technical means by which athletes attempt to improve their training and competitive surroundings in order to enhance their overall athletic performance.’  

Wearable technology is an example of our cyber culture, the incorporation and dependence that is and will be placed on cybernetics and digital technologies. We can see already that wearable technology is vastly improving and helping the performance and training of athletes, and as a result it is highly doubtful that we will result back to a time where technology and sport did not meet.

The incorporation of wearable technology has attracted the term ‘cyborg’, a term that describes a person physical ability extended beyond normal human limitations as a result of mechanical elements adjusted into the body. The incorporation of wearable technology in sport raises anxieties. Arguments investigate whether using and allowing wearable technology can cross the line between artificial enhancements and what is ‘socially acceptable’.

Firstly, we must understand what wearable technology is, and its application in sports in order to assess its validity in sport.

Where and why do we draw the line between artificial enhancements?

Wearable technology must not be narrowed down to only digital and technological functioning systems; rather, the concept of wearable technology acknowledges ‘smart textiles’. The application of smart textiles sees the fusion between certain fibres and materials to create a technology that allows for better aerodynamics, body circulation etc.

An example of this is ClimaCool by Adidas, an integrated system of technologies that work together to regulate the body temperature. “ClimaCool apparel activity conducts heat and sweat away from the body through a combination of heat and moisture-dissipating materials, ventilation channels and three-dimensional fabrics that allow air to circular close to the skin”. ClimaCool has been integrated into all athletic wear created by Adidas to help regulate body temperature. This is one evident example of wearable technology; it is changing the function of standard athletic clothing in order to adhere to an advancing society.

To check out more smart textiles check out this website: https://www.theteamfactory.com/blog/2014/05/29/uniform-fabric-technologies/

As fantasy sport is on the rise, wearable technology is being held accountable for the collection of personal player data. Known as player tracking devices, these wearable technologies have the ability to record and analyse player performance. The data collected by these wearable devices transmits data to the cloud and is then reviewed by analysts. Exactly what devices used, and whether they gather their information is still a grey area, which calls for further investigation!

But player-tracking devices are not only used for generating statistics.

In the NRL players use GPSports, which identifies changes in each athlete’s relative training load. The benefits of such device allows coaches to review data from athlete’s training history. The device is general worn between the shoulder blades of the athlete, and has proven to efficiently track heart rates, monitor fatigue, track movements etc.


Companies are now pushing to take GPS tracking to another level, making it possible to track players in indoors and under stadium roofs with the introduction of the new CSIRO indoor tracking system.

CSIRO is wireless ad-hoc for position technology, measuring player performance under the roof of Docklands Stadium. The device, ClearSkyis produced by the Victorian company Catapult Sports that supplies GPS tracking devices for elite sports, one being NRL.

Wearable technology will only continue to expand in products. Chief economist of the Consumer Technology Association Shawn DuBravac says, “If we were to go show up at a marathon somewhere, my bet would be that everybody in that first corral has a wearable on… they consider that as important as, if not more important than other things they might have on.”

Wearable technology is changing the game, from a performance perspective, athletes use this data to maximise performance. In the medical areas, these devices are tracking player health and injury. They are allowing medical staff to identify which parts of the body are most injured, and are helping to target treatment for effective treatment.

Across all levels of sport, wearable technology is continuing to be a prominent feature. Wearable technology offers businesses the opportunity to generate data analytics, which heavily influence the fantasy sports industry, they are creating the opportunities for big brands to sponsor such technology and reinvent pre-existing products and lastly it has revolutionised the medical side of sports.