Its a black and white world.

When it comes to Cultural appropriation there is a fine line between racism and authentically appropriating something. ‘Cultural appropriation’ means to adapt a certain part of another culture, although in the twenty first century it is evident that this is becoming unauthorised or unethical. Often cultural appropriation is identified with film, celebrities and throughout the media with examples such as the recent Miley Cyrus as host of the VMA’s or Selena Gomez.

Whether it is obvious or subtle most films produced around the world can be classified as ‘transnational‘ where not only the cast and/or genre are from around the world but also the behind the scenes crew as well as writers and directors. Ezra and Rowden suggest that Transnational cinema “comprises both globalisation…and the counter hegemonic responses of filmmakers from former colonial and third world countries” (2006, p.1). They further go on to describe how transnational film can be identified as creating links across a range of institutions and nations. Transnational films are a reflection of the ever increasing influence of globalisation and the profound impacts of a variety of technologies and platforms such as the Internet and social media.

Throughout humanity we have this constant desire to be ‘connected’ to the rest of the world, whether it be through travel, our tangible objects and even cinema. Through cultural appropriation this can be seen as a form of becoming ‘culturally immersed’ in a culture opposite to our own. Although this is a fault that filmmakers and the general society miss, rather than ‘cultural exchange’ we are grasping aspects of certain minorities or societies that appeal to us most rather than becoming entirely immersed.

There are endless amounts of examples of cultural appropriation one in particular I find interesting, Disney and their creation of Aladdin. Only subtly in the lyrics of ‘Arabian Night’, the lyrics “where they cut off your ear if they don’t like your face” outraged members of the arabic community. Protesters rallied that Disney were portraying them in a racist and unethical way, forcing the company to change an re-release the movie with new lyrics. Below are of the old and new song listen carefully to spot the differences:

Cultural appropriation with the example of Disney amplifies this idea that society can be paralleled to scavengers, digging for what appeals to them rather than being content with all.

BlackfaceIn comparison to years ago it can be said that society is embellishing cultural appropriation, youth is fuelling this. another category under cultural appropriation, common more so in the 1800’s. This was a way some white people would becomeb169fcec-bfca-4887-bd41-cdb3f78d308e-bestSizeAvailable characters of colour for entertainment and distinguish the hierarchy in society. In today’s society we identify similarities to this, such as celebrities adapting to cornrows and common rappers expressing emotion towards the oppression of people of colour. Cultural appropriation presents itself in multiple forms.

As the world has evolved cultural appropriation has as well. In the case of black face often it was used to distinguish the hierarchy in society, whereas nowadays we intend for ‘cultural exchange’. Rather we adapt the culture’s stereotype and create films with a western or american outlook.

Welcoming each other

Often when viewing international students, it is thought that they are granted the opportunity to explore a culture and country different to their own as a ‘holiday’. But often it is forgotten that these students face the most difficulty, whether it is the language barrier, a full understanding of the opposite culture and in some cases themselves.

Australia last year saw just under 600,00 international school enrolments, the largest portions being in higher school education. bigWhen we compare and contrast 2014 to 1994, we need to examine the mentality of not only the Australian society but also the rest of the world. This increasing number of international student enrolments can be identified as a reflection of globalisation, and its tendencies to create ties and intertwine the world.

In order to embark on a cultural exchange the student is required to learn the language, and have a general understandings of the customs and culture of the country. Although what is sometimes forgotten by the country these exchange students are visiting, is the struggle to adapt to a new country and their language. Kell and Vogl state “international students prior to coming to Australia have spent many years learning to speak English and thus enter the country. Lack of intercultural encounters due to: unaware of the extent to which local accents, fast speech and Australian colloquialisms are going to reduce their ability to speak and understand English in Australia”.

Having a language as a barrier between your host friends or family and yourself can become quite daunting and intimidating. Ultimately your ability to communicate with others, has effects on determining your sense of place within the given society. Often it is notice that this language barrier creates distress and anxiety amongst international students, where they become intimidated when interacting with locals. This is something I have witnessed, during my last years of high school we had an exchange student from Germany. Myself and the rest of the grade wondered why he spent lunch with support staff, became excluded and shortened his stay in Australia; although we were then informed by another exchange student that he found being in Australia very intimidating. The way Australians speak, our colloquialism and mannerisms often can appear intimidating. and He misunderstood our humour as if he was being mocked by students.

Serious cases of exchange students leaving Australia can be seen in 2009, where Indian students. An instance we saw citizensAUSTRALIA-INDIA-CRIME-EDUCATION of Australia racially attacking Indians, this saw multiple protests in Melbourne and the dramatic loss of jobs and money for Australia. This not only impacted Australia’s relationship with India, but also their trade and tourism rates.

Often what is failed to be recognised is that when international students embark on exchange, the process of self-formation and how commonly these students regulate and try to alter themselves in order to better fit their surrounding society.

It is evident that international students face hardships when embarking on a cultural exchange, and we credit them for their efforts. Although when reflecting on the actions of the host country and examining an international students mind, our government and education system should re-evaluate the way they approach these circumstances.

A Sporting Phenomenon

Sports is a cultural phenomenon in any given country. Walking the streets of Sydney, it is near impossible that someone goesfree-shipping-obey-hat-Snapback-Caps-Wholesale-Basketball-Cap-Baseball-Hats-Football-Hats-Hockey-Hat-Sports
unnoticed wearing an NBA snapback or jersey. This is a minor example that amplifies how globalisation has been a catalyst for the rapid spread of sports across the world.

Michael O’Shaughnessy defines globalisation as an “international community influenced by technological development and economic, political and military interests. It is characterised by a worldwide increase in interdependence, interactivity, interconnectedness, and the virtually instantaneous exchange of information”. Ultimately it is globalisation that joins countries together, and shapes the culture we live in. Globalisation is successful when there is an established ‘cultural flow‘, this is demonstrated through five dimensions: Ethnoscapes, Mediascapes, Ideoscapes, Technoscapes and Financescapes. Each dimension represent a component of the world and the way we function, although to note that neither of these scapes are free from the politics of global culture.

The culture of sports transcends around the world, each game different from the other. The popularity of games like basketball,2665664-fifa15_xboxone_ps4_barclayspremierleague_arsenal_wm soccer, cricket and football have rapidly grown; as globalisation has spread its forms of communication, it has spread the popularity of sports and how countries have adapted. For instance the world wide love of soccer, the phenomenon of FifaWorld Cup and EPL – globalisation and the rapid growth of technology have broadened consumer access. While traditionally attending the popular home games, individuals around the world are now able to access live streams of games, participate in virtual games on Xbox as well as PS4 and various fantasy leagues.

In the journal article ‘Sports and Globalisation‘ it reads “modern sport is bound up in a global network of interdependency chains that are marked by global flows and uneven power relations”. From this we examine the cultural diversity amongst each EPL team, the brands and equipment they wear, media publication and world wide access. These are some of the flows and scapes that have enabled global success for not only soccer but also sports around the world.

When we examine the success of sports and its global phenomenon, it is notable that media is one of the largest influences on the expansion of sports. Media has influenced the varied perceptions of each sport and significant teams, allowed world-wide access and can be described as a point of connect for countries. For example the Olympic Games, media publicise the event and bring together the world and764px-Current_event_olympic_games.svg their supports to one event. It is home expression of each countries individual ideologies and characteristics, it highlights how one sports origins have sparked in a variety of other countries around the world. This can be understood in light of Castells theory “we are not living in a global village, but in customised cottages globally produced and locally distributed”.

The globalisation of sports has resulted in a cultural phenomenon shared around the world. While the world progress through war, poverty and oppression, we realise that the impact of globalisation helps strengthen and bring a sense of inter connectedness around the world.